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ACE

Aerosol Characterization and receptor modEling Group

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John

Understanding the influence of meteorology and emission sources on PM2.5 mass concentrations across India: First results from the COALESCE network. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 1 February 2022, e2021JD035663.
Maheshwarkar P, Ralhan A, Sunder Raman R* et al.,(2022)

The Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions, Source Apportionment and Climate Impacts (COALESCE) is a multi-institutional Indian network project to better understand carbonaceous aerosol induced air quality and climate effects. This study presents time synchronized measurements of surface PM2.5 concentrations made during 2019 at 11 COALESCE sites across India. The network median PM2.5 concentration was 42 µg m-3 with the highest median value at Rohtak (99 µg m-3) and the lowest median value at Mysuru (26 µg m-3). The influence of six meteorological parameters on PM2.5 were evaluated. Causality analysis suggested that temperature, surface pressure, and relative humidity were the most important factors influencing fine PM mass, on an annual as well as seasonal scale. Further, a multivariable linear regression model showed that, on an annual basis, meteorology could explain 16 % to 41 % of PM2.5 variability across the network. Concentration Weighted Trajectories (CWT) together with the results of causality analysis revealed common regional sources affecting PM2.5 concentrations at multiple regional sites. Further, CWT source locations for all sites across the network correlated with the SMoG-India emissions inventory at the 95th percentile confidence. Finally, CWT maps in conjunction with emissions inventory were used to obtain quantitative estimates of anthropogenic primary PM2.5 sectoral shares from a mass-meteorology-emissions reconciliation, for all 11 pan-India network sites. These estimates can help guide immediate source reduction and mitigation actions at the national level.


John

A framework for setting up a country-wide network of regional surface PM2.5 sampling sites utilising a satellite-derived proxy – The COALESCE project, India

Atmospheric Environment Volume 234, 1 August 2020, 117544
Nirav L. Lekinwala, Ankur Bhardwaj, Ramya Sunder Raman, Mani Bhushan, Kunal Bali, Sagnik Dey

Air quality management and assessment of aerosol climate effects over a large area require the strategic placement of regionally representative monitoring sites (RRMS) to capture the required information. Ground-based, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations measured for a long duration at high spatial resolution i.e. at several potential locations in a region help identify an optimal regionally representative site for the monitoring network. However, in the absence of long-term PM2.5 concentrations with high spatial resolution, identification of RRMS is a challenge. To identify for such situations, a novel methodology utilising satellite-derived PM2.5 is presented in this study. High spatial resolution (1 km × 1 km) daily aerosol optical depth (AOD) over several years (2004–2011) is used to derive surface PM2.5 using appropriate conversion factors. PM2.5 concentrations thus derived for a potential site and its nearby cells in the region are subjected to statistical analysis, to quantify linear/non-linear relationships between the respective PM2.5 time-series. Metrics such as coefficient of divergence (CoD), Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and Mutual information (MI) are calculated to assess the regional representativeness of a site. These criteria combined with physical criteria such as proximity of the site to local sources, local meteorology analysis and clustered air parcel back-trajectory analysis, are used in a weight-of-evidence approach to establish site adequacy. The selection and validation of eleven sites for the COALESCE project, is used as an illustrative example, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the site-selection methodology developed in this study.




* Corresponding author
  1. Bhardwaj, A., and Sunder Raman, R* (2022). Evaluation of organic aerosol filter sampling artefacts and implications to gravimetric PM2.5 mass at a COALESCE network site - Bhopal, India. Journal of Environmental Management, 319, 115749."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115749" .

  2. Padhi, A., Bansal, M., Habib, G., Samiksha, S., Sunder Raman, R (2022). Physical, Chemical and Optical Properties of PM2.5 and Gaseous Emission from Cooking with Biomass Fuel in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Science of the Total Environment, 841, 156730."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156730" .

  3. Samiksha, S., Sunder Raman, R*., Jai Prakash., Padhi, A., Sanyal, P., Bhardwaj, A (2022). Characteristics of PM2.5 emitted from the combustion of vehicular fuel and solid biomass: Thermally fractionated carbon, δ13C values, and filter-based light absorption, Atmospheric Pollution Research, 13(6), 101443."https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1309104222001271?via%3Dihub" .

  4. Maheshwarkar, P., Ralhan, A., Sunder Raman, R*., Tibrewal, K., Venkataraman, C., Dhandapani, A., Naresh Kumar, R., Mukherjee, S., Chatterje, A., Rabha, S., Saikia, B.K., Bhardwaj, A., Chaudhary, P., Sinha, B., Lokhande, P., Phuleria, H.C., Roy, S., Imran, M., Habib, G., Hashmi, M.A., Qureshi, A., Qadri, A.M., Gupta, T., Lian, Y., Pandithurai, G., Prasad, L., Murthy, S., Deswal, M., Laura, J.S., Chhangani, A.K., Najar, T.A., Jehangir, A (2022). Understanding the influence of meteorology and emission sources on PM2.5 mass concentrations across India: First results from the COALESCE network. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. e2021JD035663."https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021JD035663" .

  5. Gupta, L., Dev, R., Zaidi, K., Sunder Raman, R*., Habib, G., Ghosh, B (2021). Assessment of PM10 and PM2.5 over Ghaziabad, an industrial city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: spatio-temporal variability and associated health effects. Environ Monit Assess,193(11):735."https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10661-021-09411-5" .

  6. Nirmalkar, J., Haswani, D., Singh, A., Kumar, S., and Sunder Raman, R* (2021). Concentrations, transport characteristics, and health risks of PM2.5-bound trace elements over a national park in central India. Journal of Environmental Management, 293, 112904."https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030147972100966X?dgcid=author" .

  7. Yadav, K., and Sunder Raman, R* (2021). Size-segregated chemical source profiles and potential health impacts of multiple sources of fugitive dust in and around Bhopal, central India, Environmental Pollution, 17385."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117385" .

  8. Arub, Z., Singh, G., Habib, G., and Sunder Raman, R (2021). Highly Significant Impact of Mineral Dust on Aerosol Hygroscopicity at New Delhi. Atmospheric Environment, 254, 11835."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2021.118375" .

  9. Torkmahalleh, A. M., Akhmetvaliyeva, Z., …, Sunder Raman, R. …(+ 50 coauthors), and Xie S (2021). Global Air Quality and COVID-19 Pandemic: Do We Breathe Cleaner Air? Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 21, 200567."https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.200567" .

  10. Maheshwarkar, P., and Sunder Raman, R* (2021). Population exposure across central India to PM2.5 derived using remotely sensed products in a three-stage statistical model. Scientific Reports, Volume 11:544. "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-79229-7" .

  11. Samiksha, S., Kumar, S., & Sunder Raman, R* (2021). Two-year record of carbonaceous fraction in ambient PM 2.5 over a forested location in central India: temporal characteristics and estimation of secondary organic carbon. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 1-8."https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-020-00951-2" .

  12. Kumar, S., and Sunder Raman, R* (2020). Source apportionment of fine particulate matter over a national park in central India, Science of the Total Environment, 720, 137511."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137511" .

  13. Lekinwala, N. L., Bhardwaj, A., Sunder Raman, R*, Bhushan, M., Bali, K., & Dey, S. (2020). A framework for setting up a country-wide network of regional surface PM2.5 sampling sites utilising a satellite-derived proxy–The COALESCE project, India. Atmospheric Environment, 117544."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117544" .

  14. Venkataraman, C., Bhushan, M., Dey, S., Ganguly, D., Gupta, T., Habib, G., Kesarkar, A., Phuleria, H., and Sunder Raman, R+ (2020). Indian network project on Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions, Source Apportionment and Climate Impacts (COALESCE), Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. "https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0030.1" (+All authors except first and corresponding author are equal authors and are listed in alphabetical order of last names).

  15. Lekinwala, N. L., Bhardwaj, A., Sunder Raman, R*., Bhushan, M., Bali, K., and Dey, S. (2020). Weight-of-evidence approach to identify regionally representative sites for air-quality monitoring network: Satellite data-based analysis, MethodsX, in press."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100949" .

  16. Samiksha, S., and Sunder Raman, R*. (2017). A note on unusual Si/Al ratios in PM10 and PM2.5 road dust at several locations in India, Chemosphere, 181, 376-381."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.077" .

  17. Samiksha, S., Sunder Raman, R*., Nirmalkar, J., Kumar, S., and Sirvaiya, R. (2017). PM10 and PM2.5 chemical source profiles with optical attenuation and health risk indicators of paved and unpaved road dust in Bhopal, India, Environmental Pollution, 222, 477-485."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.067" .

  18. Jaiprakash, Singhai, A., Habib, G., Sunder Raman, R*., and Gupta, T. (2017). Chemical characterisation of PM1.0 aerosol in Delhi and source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 445."https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7708-8" .

  19. Kumar, S., and Sunder Raman, R*. (2016). Inorganic ions in ambient fine pps over a national park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity, Atmospheric Environment, 143, 152-163."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.08.037" .

  20. Kaloo, M. A., Sekar, A. R., Reddy, R. R. V., Sunder Raman, R., and Sankar, J. (2016). A facile and visual approach for the detection of trace level ammonia vapours under ambient conditions, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 4, 2452-2456."https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TC00426A" .

  21. Sunder Raman, R*., and Kumar, S. (2016). First measurements of ambient aerosol over an ecologically sensitive zone in central India: Relationships between PM2.5 mass, its optical properties, and meteorology, Science of the Total Environment, 550, 706-716."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.092" .

  22. Kaloo, M. A., Sunder Raman, R., and Sankar, J (2016). Novel structurally tuned DAMN receptor for “in situ” diagnosis of bicarbonate in environmental waters, Analyst, 141, 2367-2370."https://doi.org/10.1039/C6AN00218H" .

  23. Bapna, M., Sunder Raman, R*., Ramachandran, S., and Rajesh, T. A (2013). Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20, 1617-163."https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs11356-012-1053-3" .

  24. Sunder Raman, R*., Ramachandran, S., and Kedia, S (2011). A methodology to estimate source-specific aerosol radiative forcing. Journal of Aerosol Science, 42, 305-320."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2011.01.008".

  25. Sunder Raman, R*., and Ramachandran, S (2011). Source apportionment of the ionic components in precipitation over an urban region in western India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18, 212-225."https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-010-0365-4".

  26. Sunder Raman, R*., Ramachandran, S., and Rastogi, N (2010). Source identification of ambient aerosols over an urban region in western India. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 12, 1330-1340. "https://doi.org/10.1039/b925511g".

  27. Sunder Raman, R*., and Ramachandran, S (2010). Annual and seasonal variability of ambient aerosols over an urban region in western India, Atmospheric Environment, 44(9), 1200-1208. "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.008".

  28. Kulshrestha, U. C., Sunder Raman, R., Kulshrestha, M. J., Rao, T. N., and Hazarika, P. (2009). Secondary aerosol formation and identification of regional source locations by PSCF analysis in the Indo-Gangetic region of India. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. 63, 33-47."https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-010-9156-z".

  29. Sunder Raman, R., Hopke, P. K., and Holsen, T. M. (2008). Carbonaceous aerosol at two rural locations in New York State: Characterization and behavior. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D12202."https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009281".

  30. Sunder Raman, R., Hopke, P. K., and Holsen, T. M (2008). Characterization of fine aerosol and its inorganic components at two rural locations in New York State. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment., 144, 351-366."https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9998-2".

  31. Sunder Raman, R., and Hopke, P. K (2007). Source apportionment of fine pps utilizing partially speciated organic compounds at two rural locations in New York State. Atmospheric Environment, 41 (36) 7923-7939."https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.066".

  32. Sunder Raman, R., and Hopke, P. K (2006). An ion chromatographic analysis of water –soluble, short-chain organic acids in ambient particulate matter, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 86 (10, 20) 767-777."https://doi.org/10.1080/03067310600557596".

* Presenting author
  • Sandeep Devaliya*, Jyoti Bhate, Ramya Sunder Raman, Kaushik Muduchuru, Arushi Sharma, Amit Kesarkar, Chandra Venkataraman. 2021."Chemistry Driven Changes in Simulated Meteorology for May 2015: WRF/WRF-Chem Studies over India". The American Geophysical Union Conference, December 12, 2021.

  • Sayantee Roy*, Rishabh Dev, Gazala Habib, Ramya Sunder Raman. 2021. "Wintertime Chemistry of Ionic and Carbonaceous Species of Fine Aerosol Particles at an Arid Desert Region in North-Western India". The American Association for Aerosol Research, October 18-22, 2021.

  • Chimurkar Navinya*, Harish C Phuleria, Gupta Anurag, Pradnya Lokhande, Gazala Habib, Chandra Venkataraman, Abhijit Chatterjee, D. Abisheg, Anubha Goel, Arshid Jehangir, Yang Lian, Tuhin Kumar Mandal, Shiva Nagendra, Asif Qureshi, Ramya Sunder Raman, Binoy K. Saikia, Baerbel Sinha.2021."Fine Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Emissions from Non-Cooking Residential Sector Activities over Rural India". The American Association for Aerosol Research, October 18-22, 2021.

  • Krishna Kedia*, Ramya Sunder Raman. 2020. “Light scattering by fine particles over a national park in central India: Comparisons between measurements and model outputs”. European Aerosol Conference, August 30, 2020.

  • Gazala Habib*, Lovleen Gupta, Ramya Sunder Raman. 2019. “First long term measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol composition over Ghaziabad, India's most polluted industrial city”. Presented at the European Aerosol Conference, August 2019, Gothenburg, Sweden

  • Akanksha Singh*, Akarsh Ralhan, Ramya Sunder Raman, Gazala Habib, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Nishant Mittal, Juergen Spielvogel, Axel Zerrath, Andrea Tiwari, Francisco Romay. 2019. “On-line size segregated mass measurement of aerosols from traditional cookstove emissions in central India using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance- Micro Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (QCM-MOUDI)”, Presented at the 11th Asian Aerosol Conference, May 2019, Hong Kong.

  • Jayant Nirmalkar*, Samresh Kumar, and Ramya Sunder Raman, "2018. Ambient Fine Pp Trace Elements over Van Vihar National Park, Bhopal, India and an Assessment of Associated Potential Health Risks". The American Association for Aerosol Research, St Louis Missouri, United State, September 2-7, 2018

  • Shilpi Samiksha* and Ramya Sunder Raman. 2018. “Usefulness of Stable Carbon Isotope and other Chemical Tracers to Distinguish between Primary and Secondary Sources of PM2.5 Pps over a National Park in Central India,International Aerosol Conference held during 2nd to 7th September 2018 in St. Louis , MO, USA

  • Samresh Kumar* and Ramya Sunder Raman, 2018. "Temporal Variability of Fine Pp Liquid Water Content over a National Park in Central India". Presented to 10th International Aerosol Conference, September 2018, St. Louis, MO, USA

  • Lovleen Gupta, and Ramya Sunder Raman, and Gazala Habib. 2018. "Chemical composition of ambient PM2.5 and PM10 for an industrial city, Ghaziabad, India". Presented at the 10th International Aerosol Conference, September 2018, St Louis, MO

  • Shilpi Samiksha*, Ramya Sunder Raman and Samresh Kumar. 2017. "Choice of OC/EC Ratio in the EC Tracer Method to Estimate Secondary Organic Carbon Over a National Park in Bhopal, India: A Sensitivity Analysis". Presented to Annual Meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research, October 2017, Raleigh, NC

  • Samresh Kumar, Ramya Sunder Raman and Jayant Nirmalkar. 2017. "A Comparison of the Source Apportionment of Fine Pps Measured over a National Park in Central India using PMF2 and US EPA PMF5". Presented to Annual Meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research, October 2017, Raleigh, NC

  • Jayant Nirmalkar*, Ramya Sunder Raman and Samresh Kumar. 2017. "Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Mass Over an Ecologically Sensitive Zone in Central India by Positive Matrix Factorization". Presented to Annual European Aerosol Conference, August 2017, Zurich, Switzerland

  • Shilpi Samiksha and Ramya Sunder Raman. 2017. "Anomalous Si/Al Ratios in PM10 and PM2.5 Road Dust at Several Locations in India". Presented to Annual European Aerosol Conference, August 2017, Zurich, Switzerland

  • Samresh Kumar and Ramya Sunder Raman. 2017. "Investigating the nature and sources of non-water soluble sulfate sulfur in fine pps over a National Park in Central India". Presented to Annual European Aerosol Conference, August 2017, Zurich, Switzerland

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, Balram Ambade, Masood Ayub Kaloo. 2012. “Fine pps over an ecologically sensitive zone in Bhopal, India-characterization and temporal variability”. Presented to the 31st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research, October 2012, Minneapolis, MN

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, Rohit Sirvaiya, Masood Ayub Kaloo. 2012. “Chemical source profiles for airborne crustal material over a region in India”. Presented to the 31st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research, October 2012, Minneapolis, MN

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, S. Ramachandran, Sumita Kedia. 2010. “A methodology to estimate source-specific aerosol radiative forcing”. Presented to 29th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research, October 2010, Portland, OR

  • Ramya Sunder Raman, Philip K. Hopke*. 2007. “Descriptive time series analysis of fine carbonaceous aerosol at Potsdam, NY.” Presented to the European Aerosol Conference, September 2007, Salzburg, Austria

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, Philip K. Hopke. 2006. “Investigation of carbonaceous aerosol behavior at two locations in New York State.” Presented to the International Aerosol Conference, September 2006, St. Paul, MN

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, Philip K. Hopke, Eugene Kim, Potsdam, NY; Nicolas Bukowiecki, Ferenc Hegedus, Ernest Weingartner, Urs Baltensperger, Matthias Hill, Robert Gehrig, Peter Linemann, Gerald Falkenberg. 2005. “Source apportionment of the ambient aerosol in Zürich, Switzerland” Presented to the American Association for Aerosol Research, October 2005, Austin, TX

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, Philip K. Hopke. 2005. “Source apportionment of fine pps in Potsdam and Stockton, NY, utilizing the composition of water-soluble short-chain organic acids.” Presented to the Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies. An international specialty conference sponsored by American Association for Aerosol Research. February 2005, Atlanta, GA.

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, Philip K. Hopke. 2005. “An ion chromatographic method for analysis of water-soluble short-chain organic acids in ambient particulate matter” Presented to the Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies. An international specialty conference sponsored by American Association for Aerosol Research. February 2005, Atlanta, GA.

  • Ramya Sunder Raman*, Philip K. Hopke. 2004. “Analysis of water soluble short chain organic acids in ambient particulate matter.” Presented to the American Association for Aerosol Research , October 2004, Atlanta, GA