Innate immunity is first line of defense system and promptly activated after microbial infection to initiate protective responses through production of inflammatory cytokines from various immune cells. Innate immune system consists of humoral components such as complements, acute phase proteins and cellular components such as Monocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic cells, Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, Mast cells and Natural-killer cells. The humoral components have a broad range of actions against microorganisms, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses. The cellular components either directly kill the microbial pathogens through phagocytosis or induce production of cytokines, which helps in the elimination of pathogens. The innate immune cells express various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which recognize signature molecules of the pathogen. These signature molecules are essential for the survival of the pathogen and known as a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMPs). These PRRs recognizes different PAMPs of the pathogen in various compartments of the cells and trigger induction of inflammatory cytokines for the host defense. Furthermore, the innate immune responses are also required for the development of the pathogen specific adaptive immunity through B and T lymphocytes.
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Organized GIAN course on immunology (17th to 28th Feb.)
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